(Who’s In the Control group)
Back in the day I graduated from high school after attaining all required credits of the Arts and Sciences curriculum. We performed quite a few experiments and even ventured so far as to make our own drugs. No, not that. What we made was acetylsalicylic acid, also know as (ASA), or, aspirin.
I was pretty good at science. We learned process and methodology. We learned to investigate and to document our proven results. We learned what a control or control group was, and why it’s unaffected, non-inclusion was important – how such a critical bar of ambient normalcy provided a base of comparison for, not only our results, but also for proving or repeating our own and others results.
Jump forward 50 years to here and now.
It sure is starting to look like the Scientific Method has and hasn’t changed. It hasn’t changed from the point of having peer-reviewed discoveries. It has changed, however, from that other point, to the demonization of those who, through peer-reviewed studies, have challenge ‘the science’ of certain celebrated ‘experts’ who have been openly hidden in the back ground tinkering away at new and improved ways to maim and alter and kill their fellow citizens.
Odd how those same names keep coming up. You know of whom I write.
By Todd Helmenstine
Updated on January 13, 2020 (Edited for emphasis, clarity and snark)
In an experiment, data from an experimental group is compared with data from a control group. These two groups should be identical in every respect except one: the difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the independent variable is changed for the experimental group, but is held constant in the control group.
Key Takeaways: Control vs. Experimental Group.
A single experiment may include multiple experimental groups, which may all be compared against the control group.
The purpose of having a control is to rule out other factors which may influence the results of an experiment. Not all experiments include a control group, but those that do are called “controlled experiments.” A placebo may also be used in an experiment. A placebo isn’t a substitute for a control group because subjects exposed to a placebo may experience effects from the belief they are being tested.
What Are Groups in Experiment Design?
An experimental group is a test sample or the group that receives an experimental procedure. This group is exposed to changes in the independent variable being tested. The values of the independent variable and the impact on the dependent variable are recorded. An experiment may include multiple experimental groups at one time.
A control group is a group separated from the rest of the experiment such that the independent variable being tested cannot influence the results. This isolates the independent variable’s effects on the experiment and can help rule out alternative explanations of the experimental results.
While all experiments have an experimental group, not all experiments require a control group. Controls are extremely useful where the experimental conditions are complex and difficult to isolate. Experiments that use control groups are called controlled experiments.
A simple example of a controlled experiment may be used to determine whether or not plants need to be watered to live. (think of, or watch the movie Idiocracy) The control group would be plants that are not watered. The experimental group would consist of plants that receive water. A clever scientist would wonder whether too much watering might kill the plants and would set up several experimental groups, each receiving a different amount of water.
Sometimes setting up a controlled experiment can be confusing. For example, a scientist may wonder whether or not a species of bacteria needs oxygen in order to live. To test this, cultures of bacteria may be left in the air, while other cultures are placed in a sealed container of nitrogen (the most common component of air) or deoxygenated air (which likely contained extra carbon dioxide). Which container is the control? Which is the experimental group?
Control Groups and Placebos
The most common type of control group is one held at ordinary conditions so it doesn’t experience a changing variable. For example, If you want to explore the effect of salt on plant growth, the control group would be a set of plants not exposed to salt, while the experimental group would receive the salt treatment. If you want to test whether the duration of light exposure affects fish reproduction, the control group would be exposed to a “normal” number of hours of light, while the duration would change for the experimental group.
Experiments involving human subjects (people-kind) can be much more complex. If you’re testing whether a drug is effective or not, for example, members of a control group may expect they will not be unaffected. To prevent skewing the results, a placebo may be used. A placebo is a substance that doesn’t contain an active therapeutic agent. If a control group (read bastions of faithful Liberal electors) takes a placebo, participants don’t know whether they are being treated or not, so they have the same expectations (fear) as members of the experimental group.
However, there is also the placebo effect to consider. Here, the recipient of the placebo experiences an effect or improvement (or even decline) because he/she believes there should be an effect. Another concern with a placebo is that it’s not always easy to formulate one that truly free of active ingredients. For example, if a sugar pill is given as a placebo, there’s a chance the sugar will affect the outcome of the experiment.
Positive and Negative Controls are two other types of control groups: Positive control groups are control groups in which the conditions guarantee a positive result. Positive control groups are effective to show the experiment is functioning as planned.
Negative control groups are control groups in which conditions produce a negative outcome. Negative control groups help identify outside influences which may be present that were not unaccounted for, such as contaminants.
Bailey, R. A. (2008). Design of Comparative Experiments. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-68357-9.
Chaplin, S. (2006). “The placebo response: an important part of treatment”. Prescriber: 16–22. doi:10.1002/psb.344
Hinkelmann, Klaus; Kempthorne, Oscar (2008). Design and Analysis of Experiments, Volume I: Introduction to Experimental Design (2nd ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-72756-9.
Sooo, another one of those nasty, pesky, peer-reviewed terrorists has come up with yet another (among hundreds) fake news Google fact checked) study pertaining to his own experiences as witnessed and documented over a ten years study on patients in his own and others medical practices. The orange line results are pretty alarming.
www.bitchute.com/video/LJAZjQEU1Fpy/ for a listen to the study in question start at 43:56
For some disturbingly oogy info about captured and destroyed Ukraine human experimentation facilities, start at 40:35.
Did some of their test subjects escape (or were released) before the Russian troops arrived????
If this is a joke it is a very elaborate one. Similar dead creatures have been found washed ashore in different locations around the globe with no explanation asked or offered.
www.bitchute.com/video/1jbxNZI6wnYi/ Min 27:19, min 31:05 (impossible elbow joints!)
Signs and wonders???
Maurice St. Jean, Editor, Parrhesias.com 2022-04-22